X-RAY Tomography in Material Science

Auteurs :

Langue : Anglais
Couverture de l'ouvrage X-RAY Tomography in Material Science

Thème de X-RAY Tomography in Material Science

Date de parution :
Ouvrage 204 p. · 16x24 cm · Broché
ISBN : 9782746201156 EAN : 9782746201156
Hermes Science
For researchers dealing with structural materials, a key issue is the identification of the mechanisms responsible for the global mechanical behaviour of a material. Experimentally, this identification is quite an arduous task, carried out mainly through surface observations because most structural materials are opaque.The aim of this book is to show that X-ray tomography can be used as a very powerful tool to investigate the microstructure and the deformation mechanisms of structural materials. For the moment, this technique, which has been widely used for years in medicine, is the only one that can provide direct non-destructive images of the interior of a material.A global description of the technique is given, as well as an introduction to the algorithms used for the reconstruction of the 3D numerical images. An overview of new possibilities offered by third generation synchrotron X-ray sources is also presented with an emphasis on the novel phase contrast technique which considerably extends the field of classical X-ray tomography.Finally, various examples illustrate how X-ray tomography can be used quantitatively for investigating the microstructure and the behaviour of micro-heterogeneous structural materials such as Al and Ti based metal matrix composites, aluminium alloys and aluminium foams. The use of both synchrotron and laboratory X-ray sources is illustrated.
Foreword1. General principlesG. PEIX, P. DUVAUCHELLE, N. FREUDIntroductionX and gamma-ray tomography: physical basisDifferent scales, different applicationsQuntitative tomographyConclusionReferences2. Phase contrast tomographyP. ClOETENS, W. LUDWIG, J.-P. GUIGAY, J. BARUCHEL, M. SCHLENKER, D. VAN DYCKIntroductionX-ray phase modulationPhase sensitive imaging methodsDirect imagingQuantitative imagingConclusionReferences3. Microtomography at a third generation syncrotron radiation facilityJ. BARUCHEL, E. BOLLER, P. CLOETENS, W. LUDWIG, F. PEYRINIntroductionSyncrotron radiation and microtomographyImprovement in the signal to noise ratio in the 3D imagesImprovement in the spatial resolutionQuantitative measurement (absorption case)Present state of local tomographySample environment in microtomographyPhase ImagingOther new approaches in microtomography3.. Conclusion3.. References4. Introduction to reconstruction methodsC. ROBERT-COUTANT, A. MARCIntroductionDescription of projection measurementsBackprojectionProjection-slice theoremFourier reconstruction methodsFiltering in Fourier methodsART-type methodsConclusionReferences5. Study of materials in the semi-solid stateS. VERRIER, M. BRACCINI, C. JOSSEROND, L. SALVO, M. SUÉRY, W. LUDWIG, P. CLOETENS, J. BARUCHELIntroductionExperimental device and procedureResults on Al-Si alloysResults on Al-Cu alloysConclusion and perspectivesReferences6. Characterisation of void and reinforcement distributionsby edge contrastI. JUSTICE, B. DERBY, G. DAVIS, P. ANDERSON, J. ELLIOTTIntroductionDual energy X-ray microtomographyExperimental materialsResults and discussionConclusions References 7. Characterisation of MMCp and cast Aluminium alloysJ.-Y. BUFFIÈRE, S. SAVELLI, E. MAIRE Introduction Experimental methods Results and discussion Conclusion References 8. X-ray tomography of Aluminium foams and Ti/SiC compositesE. MAIRE, J.-Y. BUFFIÈRE General introduction Aluminium foams Titanium composites General conclusion References 9. Simulation tool for X-ray imaging techniquesP. DUVAUCHELLE, N. FREUD, V. KAFTANDJIAN, G. PEIX, D. BABOT Introduction Background Simulation possibilities Simulation examples in tomography Conclusions and future directions References 10. Micro focus computed tomogrgraphy of Aluminium foamsA.-H. BENAOULI, L. FROYEN, M. WEVERS Introduction Production process of Aluminium foams Mechanics of foams Non-destructive investigation of Aluminium foams Conclusion References 11. 3D observation of grain boundary penetration in Al alloysW. LUDWIG, S. BOUCHET, D. BELLET, J.-Y. BUFFIÈRE Introduction Experimental set-up Result Conclusions References 12. Determination of local mass density distributionH.P. DESISCHER, A. KOTTAR, B. FOROUGHI Introduction Material X-ray radiography Result Application of the mean local density distribution References 13. Modelling porous materials evolutionD. BERNARD, G.-L. VIGNOLES, J.-M. HEINTZ Introduction Evolution of sandstone reservoir rocks by pressure solution C-C Ceramics sintering Conclusions and forthcoming works References 14. Study of damage during superplastic deformationC.-F. MARTIN, J.-J. BLANDIN, L. SALVO, C. JOSSEROND, P. CLOETENS, E. BOLLER Introduction to damage in superplasticity Usual techniques of characterisation Experimental procedure X-ray microtomography results Quantification of the coalescence process Conclusions References