The nuclear fuel of pressurized water reactors and fast neutron reactors: design an behaviour

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Langue : Anglais
Couverture de l'ouvrage The nuclear fuel of pressurized water reactors and fast neutron reactors: design an behaviour

Thème de The nuclear fuel of pressurized water reactors and fast...

Date de parution :
Ouvrage 642 p. · 16x24 cm · Relié
ISBN : 9781898298571 EAN : 9781898298571
Intercept Ltd
This book discusses the design, manufacture and behaviour of nuclear fuel in PWRs (pressurized water reactors) and FRs (fast reactors). It reflects the unrivalled knowledge of the French Agency for Nuclear Power (CEA) and other specialised companies in the field (Framatome, a reactor constructor, EDF, a reactor operator, Cogema, a fuel manufacturer and reprocessor). Their combined expertise covers all aspects of the industry. The book concentrates on normal operating conditions, including operating incidents related to fuels. Safety considerations and some safety analysis principles are examined, from fuel design to reaction stages. Conditions resulting from accidents are not discussed as these are usually related to the overall functioning of power plants. Begining with a review of the various types of fuel, the book moves on to introduce concepts of fuel design and future prospects. It gives a comprehensive description of : fuel production, fuel cladding and fuel assembly , fuel behaviour inside the reactor , absorber elements , spent fuel management. Finally, the appendices to this major reference feature calculations, equations and examination of irradiated fuels.
FUEL AND FUEL STUDIES (50pp). General fuel and reactor concepts. The role of fuel. Reactors in general. Types of reactors. Fuel cycle. Fuel characteristics. Material selection criteria. Fuel element materials of present nuclear power reactors. Designs and concepts of present nuclear power reactor fuel assemblies. Other types of fuel. Outline of pressurized water reactor and fast neutron reactor fuels. Pressurized water reactor fuel. Fast neutron reactor fuel. Fuel studies. Fuel assembly stresses in a reactor. Fuel studies. Experimental bases of fuel studies. Out-of-reactor studies and tests. In-reactor tests. Post-irradiation examinations and tests. FUEL FABRICATION (26pp). Introduction. Requirements. Quality. Characteristics of fuel fabrication plants. Fuel fabrication. Uranium oxide for pressurized water reactors. Mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuel. Other fuel materials. Cladding fabrication. Cladding for light water reactors. Cladding for fast neutron reactors. Fuel assembly component fabrication. Pressurized water reactors. Fast neutron reactors. Rod or pin fabrication. Assembly fabrication. Pressurized water reactors. Fast neutron reactors. IN-REACTOR BEHAVIOUR OF FUEL MATERIALS (82pp). Introduction. Heat production and removal. Fission spikes. Calculation of fuel temperatures. Thermal conductivity. Temperature effects. Geometric effects of temperature. Restructuring. Radial redistribution of fuel constituents. Irradiation effects. Diffusion. Fission gas behaviour. Fission gas release. Transmutation of uranium into plutonium. Fission product effects. Fission product formation. Solid fission products. Fission product migration. Swelling due to fission products. Oxide chemistry. Phase diagram. Oxygen potential. Reaction with the coolant. Advanced FR fuels. Carbide and nitride fuels. Metallic fuel. CLADDING AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS (112pp). Irradiation effects - Introduction. Structure of metals. Primary damage - Irradiation defects. Secondary damage caused by irradiation. Macroscopic effects of irradiation. Zirconium alloys in PWRs. The choice of zirconium. Processing of alloys and components. Properties of unirradiated zirconium. In-reactor behaviour. Trends. Cladding and structural materials for fast neutron reactors. Material selection criteria. The materials - Their evolution. Austenitic steels. High-nickel alloys. Ferritic martensitic steels. Corrosion of fuel pin cladding and wrapper tube materials. Conclusion. PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR FUEL ASSEMBLY (166pp). Description of fuel assembly. Introduction. Description of support structure. Description of fuel rod. Reactor operation. Fuel management. Reactor operating classes. Design. Fuel assembly design. Fuel rod design. In-reactor behaviour of fuel rod. Uranium oxide (UO2). Cladding. Pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). Summary of fuel rod behaviour. MOX behaviour in pressurized water reactors. Models. Fission gas release modelling. Corrosion models. Numerical simulation of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). Fuel behaviour under accidental conditions. Accident classification with respect to reactor design. Extensively investigated accidents. The role of fuel in the accident scenarios. FAST REACTOR FUEL SUBASSEMBLY (94pp). Fuel subassembly design. Main characteristics of the fuel subassembly. Main requirements. Design methodology. Mixed oxide fuel pin. Introduction. Beginning-of-life behaviour. Behaviour at moderate burnup. Behaviour at high burnup. The fuel subassembly. Introduction. Wrapper tube behaviour. Pin bundle behaviour. Cladding failures. Introduction. The T0 state of the pin before the appearance of a leak. Gas release and sodium entry. The oxide-sodium reaction and its consequences. Cladding failure and DND signals. Behaviour under accidental conditions. Introduction. Reactivity-initiated accidents. Low-flow or loss-of-flow accidents. Earthquake. Advanced fuels. Introduction. Why advanced fuels?. The nitride fuel element. The metallic fuel element. Actinide burning components.