The term composite materialsis widely used to designate many compounds for practical applications. This type of materials has existed for millennia, more or less sophisticated, as in ancient civilizations for the preparation of pottery or of plant-mineral mixtures for their pharmaceutical properties. Nothing is more significant, however, than those found in the biomedical field, since there are so many living examples of nano-biocomposites in our own bodies. It is of particular importance to review the composites in these areas from the advanced viewpoints of the 21st century. The nine overview articles contained in this volume can be broadly divided into 3 groups, i.e. Materials for bio-structural applications, Pharmacy-targeted composites and Composites for biological applications. Their common features are materials science and medicine or biology. The involved topics are quite diverse, from mechanical properties like controlled deformability to clinical significance like self-deployability. Many issues are also quite useful in broader fields of materials science, e.g. bio-degradability, corrosion resistance or molecular recognition, from scientific view points, or- particle coating or liquid crystal templates, from technological viewpoints. This book should be of interest to chemists, physicists, materials scientists, biologists, pharmacists and physicians who investigate, devise, characterize and apply inorganic/organic composites.